APES EXAM—Break Down



Exam Taking Advice

Know what you’re getting into:

-                100 multiple choice (90 min) (60% of grade)

-                4 free-response (90 min) (40% of grade)


Multiple-choice section

-                Don’t leave any blank!!

-                5 choices per question


- Use the “plus-minus” system or some version of it.


Old Scoring Averages:

            Scores of 50-60% usually result in a 3.

            Scores of 65-75% usually result in a 4.

            Scores of 80% or higher usually result in a 5.


Free-Response Section

Average free response question yields roughly 4 to 6 of the 10 possible points.  Don’t panic if you can’t ace it.  You should attempt to get partial credit even if you have no idea of what you’re talking about.

The free response section is usually broken down into four questions.

      1-   One question is quantitative or data based.   Over the years, the format of this question has varied.  Some questions were mathematical, asking the student to do a series of calculations and then to relate the answers to some environmental concepts. The calculations usually involved large numbers and using scientific notation would help with organization.  Always show your work and use the proper units.  Sometimes the information in the question is in the form of a graph or chart and you will have to extract the data to answer the question.

      2-   One question is document based.  This means that you will have to read a document or passage and then use the information contained in it along with your own background knowledge to answer the question.  You will not be able to answer the question without first reading the passage.

      3-   The last two questions involve synthesis and evaluation.  These questions ask the student to organize their information on the relationship between two or more concepts, in a way that demonstrates a depth of knowledge and reasoning ability on a variety of environmental science topics.  Usually one of these questions asks the student to design an experiment or analyze given data to solve an environmental problem.

Make sure you review using the sheets I’ve supplied and the websites too!  This exam contains many small facts and terms. Don’t underestimate the power of reviewing!






Energy Flow and Interactions in Communities


Ecology Themes

  1. Energy flows ONE WAY in an ecosystem

    1. First Law of Thermodynamics
    2. Second Law of Thermodynamics

                                               i.      Entropy

  1. Energy flow is modeled by trophic levels

    1. Food chains -v- food webs
  2. Ecological Pyramids models ecosystems

    1. Organisms
    2. Energy
    3. Biomass


  1. NPP=GPP-Resp



Ecology Themes


  1. There are interactions among organisms

    1. Commensalism-Mutualism-Parasitism



    1. Interactions are unique adaptations


  1. Every organism occupies a niche

    1. Realized -v- fundamental
    2. Limiting factors
    3. Competitive Exclusion
    4. Resource partitioning


  1. Communities are more stable with increasing biodiversity


  1. Natural Selection

    1. Co-evolution


  1. Succession

    1. Primary -v- Secondary



    1. Climax communities





Population Ecology


Populations -


  1. There are factors that affect population size and density.

    1. Growth rate   r = (b-d) + (i-e)



    1. Density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors




  1. There is environmental resistance that prohibits a population from reaching its biotic potential.

    1. Carrying capacity of the environment (K)



    1. Exponential -v- logistic (sigmoidal) growth curves




  1. Reproductive strategies determine your survivorship strategy.

    1. r  vs.K selected species characteristics



    1. Types I, II, III survivorship curves


Human Population Growth -

Will humans ever achieve ZPG?

    1. Developed -v- developing country population characteristics



    1. Doubling time: rule of 70



    1. Total fertility rate, replacement level fertility always per 1000


    1. Infant mortality rate (IMR) always per 1000



  1. Countries go through distinct demographic stages as they develop.

    1. Pre-industrial à transitional à industrial à post-industrial             


    1. Age structure diagrams and what the shapes indicate


Problems of Overpopulation


  1. Unchecked population growth creates hunger and economic strain on countries.

    1. Debt of developing nations
    2. Rush to develop and the World Bank


  1. Populations consume resources at different rates.

    1. Renewable-v- nonrenewable resources
    2. People overpopulation -v- consumptive overpopulation
    3. New consumers in developing nations
    4. Modeling environmental impact: I = P x A x T




  1. Humans tend to live in concentrations called urban areas

    1. 45% globally, 75% USA
    2. Characteristics of urban populations (male-v- female)
    3. Urbanization adversely affects natural water availability
    4. Urban heat islands/dust domes


  1. ZPG can be attained by reducing the total fertility rate but it can only be changed by the status of women in that country.

    1. Culture
    2. Social & economic status of women

                                                               i.      Marriage age

                                                             ii.      Education

    1. Family planning


  1. International governments have an interest in controlling population growth.

    1. Development = higher standard of living
    2. Culture and religion, not government are the key to controlling growth



Maintaining Earth's Biodiversity 

  1. There a five major reasons why we need to preserve Earth's biodiversity.

    1. Ecosystem services & ecosystem simplification
    2. Genetic reserves
    3. Scientific importance
    4. Medicines, Agriculture and Industry
    5. Aesthetic, Ethical and Spiritual


  1. Human activities have greatly accelerated the rate that species are going extinct.

    1. Threatened-v-endangered
    2. Characteristics of an endangered species


  1. Tropical rainforests occupy 7% of the Earth's surface, but they house 40% of the Earth's species

    1. Tropical deforestation & songbirds


  1. Human activities are endangering too many species

    1. Habitat loss
    2. Exotic species (biotic pollution)
    3. Exotics-v-endemics
    4. Pollution
    5. Overexploitation
    6. Commercial harvesting (& commercial extinction)


  1. Certain species act as early warning sensors for possible environmental catastrophy.

    1. Bellwether (sentinel, indicator) species
    2. Frog: decline and deformities


  1. Conservation biology protects species both in and out of nature.

    1. In-situ -v- ex-situ conservation strategies
    2. Habitat preservation
    3. Restoration ecology
    4. Artificial insemination
    5. Embryo transfer
    6. Seed banks


  1. Governments have passed legislation to protect biota.

    1. ESA
    2. Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP's)
    3. CITES


  1. There are distinct actions that can taken to protect biodiversity.

    1. Public awareness
    2. Support research
    3. Establish International park system
    4. Control pollution
    5. Give economic incentives to locals

                                                               i.      Debt for nature swaps

                                                             ii.      Profit sharing

                                                            iii.      Tax incentives for habitat conservation

Biomes of the World -


  1. Biomes are areas of similar climate, soils, plants, and animals on Earth.

    1. Tundra -Cold boggy plains of the far north
    2. Taiga (Boreal) -Evergreen forests of the north
    3. Temperate rain forests - Lush temperate forests
    4. Deciduous forests
    5. Grasslands - temperate
    6. Chaparral -Thickets of Evergreen shrubs and small trees
    7. Deserts - Arid life zones
    8. Savanna – tropical grasslands
    9. Tropical rain forests - Lush equatorial forests
    10. Vertical zonation is like equator à poles


  1. Wildfires are essential to sustaining certain ecosystems


  1. Areas though useless for human use provide valuable ecosystem services.

    1. Wetlands (marshes -v- swamps)


            Central Case Study– Invasive Species

-       no natural predators

-       accidentally or intentionally introduced

-       reproduce quickly forcing native species out

-       can lead to localized extinction

-       islands are most susceptible (especially those with no predatory or large mammals)

-       Ex. Brown tree snake, purple loosestrife, zebra mussel, wild boar, starlings, mute swan, gypsy moth, Asian longhorned beetle, snakehead



Biological Productivity and Energy Flow –

            1. Biomass



2. Net production = change in biomass over time



3. primary production (increase in biomass by autotrophs) vs. secondary production (by                              heterotrophs)


            4. Equations


                        GP = NP + R                                                              NP = GP - R


                        Gross is without “taxes”.   Taxes are respiration in this case.  Net is Gross minus Taxes




5. Energy flow and the laws of thermodynamics

                        First Law

                                    - energy cannot be created  or destroyed but is always conserved

                        Second Law

- energy always goes from a high quality form to a low quality form (usually heat)  



6. Energy efficiency and transfer efficiency


                        Green plant only convert 1-3%  of light E into plant tissue


                        More than 90% (usually closer to 99%) of all E transferred between levels is lost as heat






Biogeochemical Cycles –



  1. The Gaia Hypothesis by Lovelock

    1. Earth is a living system (homeostatic)
    2. Positive -v- negative feedback loops




  1. Matter continually cycles on Earth  (closed system) between major sources and sinks.

    1. Carbon cycle

  i.      Respiration -v- photosynthesis

 ii.      Global warming



Nitrogen cycle

 i.      Fixation à nitrification à assimilation à  ammonification à denitrification

 ii.      Legumes

 iii.      Fertilizers

iv.      NOx emission à smogà ozone depletion

v.      Acid rain



Phosphorus cycle

                                               i.     Cultural eutrophication

                                             ii.     Major limiting factor for freshwater primary productivity


Water cycle – know the “-tions”


Sulfur cycle

i.      Sulfides

ii.      SO2 from volcanoes


  1. Nutrient budgets

    1. Inflow > outflow = loading                  eutrophication
    2. Outflow > inflow = loss                      Freq. assoc. with monoculture




Fossil Fuels


  1. Developed countries consume much more energy per capita than developing nation
  2. Standard of living & Amenities to live


  1. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth and there are many environmental problems associated with using coal.

    1. Coal formation & types
    2. Coal mining methods
    3. Safety problems of coal mining

                                               i.                                                                    i.      Black lung disease

    1. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA)
    2. Acid mine drainage
    3. Most CO2
    4. SO2
    5. Acid deposition (à lake acidification)
    6. Scrubbers
    7. Clean Air Act 1990 (clean-up the big 11)
    8. Clean coal technologies

                                                               i.      Fluidized-bed combustion

                                                             ii.      Coal gasification

                                                            iii.      Coal liquifaction


  1. Oil and Natural gas has replaced coal as the primary source of energy for the globe.

    1. 65% of the energy consumed in the US
    2. Dependence of foreign oil
    3. Limited reserves
    4. Reserves do not correspond with areas of intensive consumption
    5. Problems

                                                               i.      Exxon Valdez

                                                             ii.      Persian Gulf war

                                                            iii.      Arctic Wildlife refuge


  1. There are other potential fossil fuel resources called synfuels.

    1. Tar sands
    2. Oil shales
    3. Gas hydrates (methane hydrates)
    4. Liquefied coal
    5. Coal gas (massive water input)
    6. Back to the same problems of CO2, air pollution, & mining


  1. The actual cost of energy represented by the prices paid by consumers is artificially low because of government subsidies and externalities.


  1. America has an overall national energy strategy 



- Nuclear Energy


  1. Nuclear energy is a plausible source of electricity production but accounts for a small portion of all the energy produced in the US.

    1. Nuclear fuel cycle & enrichment
    2. U-235
    3. How nuclear energy creates electricity


  1. Breeder reactors are distrusted by the public and  government because they can produce plutonium.

    1. U-238 à Pu-239, can also use Th-232 or U-235
    2. Reprocessing spent fuel
    3. Safety (Na(l))


  1. Nuclear power has advantages and disadvantages.

    1. Reduced emissions-v- spent fuel storage
    2. Coal mining -v-uranium mining
    3. Cost to build a nuclear plant
    4. Maintaining exiting plants
    5. Decommissioning plants
    6. Meltdowns

                                                               i.      Three Mile Island

                                                             ii.      Chernobyl


  1. Nuclear radiation has adverse health effects of the human body


  1. Disposing of radioactive wastes is a major challenge.

    1. Low-v-high level nuclear wastes
    2. Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act
    3. Half life
    4. Nuclear Waste Policy Act
    5. Yucca Mountain
    6. Vitrification (boron)


  1. Fusion holds promise but is not attainable yet.

    1. 2H + 3H à no + 4He
    2. Not yet attainable (confining the plasma)



- Alternative or Renewable Energy


  1. There are direct and indirect forms of solar energy; and direct solar heating can be either passive or active.
  2. Direct

                                               i.     Passive (Design & orientation)

                                             ii.     Active (collection devices)

                                            iii.     Electricity generation

1.     Solar thermal electric

  1. Photovoltaic cells
  2. Solar-generated hydrogen
  3. Indirect

                                               i.     Biomass

                                             ii.     Biogas

                                            iii.     Synthehols like ethanol

                                            iv.     Wind energy

                                              v.     Hydropower

                                            vi.     Ocean waves

                                           vii.     Ocean Thermal energy conversion


  1. There are other sources of renewable energy.

    1. Tidal energy
    2. Geothermal energy


Water Resources and Water Pollution



  1. Water is responsible for life on earth

    1. Properties
    2. Water cycle
    3. Groundwater anatomy


  1. There are water resource problems

    1. Too much (Floods)
    2. Too Little

                                               i.     Overdrawing aquifers

1.     Salt-water intrusion

2.     Lowering the water table

                                             ii.     Overdrawing Surface water

                                            iii.     Soil salinization


  1. Water issues in the United States and the around the globe

    1. Mono Lake
    2. Colorado River basin
    3. Ogallalah aquifer
    4. Aral Sea


  1. Water is managed and conserved

    1. Dams

   i.      Fish migration

 ii.      Sedimentation

    1. Aquaducts
    2. Agriculture
    3. Gray water use


Water Pollution Themes


  1. There are many types of water pollution

    1. Sewage
    2. Disease causing agents

i.      Fecal coliform

    1. Sediments
    2. Nutrients

i.      Dead Zones

ii.   Eutrophication

    1. Organic Compounds
    2. Inorganic compounds

i.      Acids, salts, metals

    1. Radioactive substances
    2. Thermal pollution


  1. Eutrophication is both natural and human induced

    1. Too much nitrogen or phosphorus
    2. Oligotrophic -v- eutrophic lakes




  1. Agriculture is the number one source of water pollution

    1. Animal wastes
    2. Fertilizers
    3. Pesticides
    4. Soil erosion


                                    Dead Zone in Gulf of Mexico


  1. Water is treated for human consumption and the better of the environment

    1. Steps to drinking water treatment

i.      Chlorination-v-fluoridation

    1. Steps of sewage treatment
    2. Primary-v-secondary-v-tertiary treatment


  1. Laws passed to protect against water pollution

    1. Safe Drinking Water Act

                                               i.     standards for maximum contaminant levels

    1. Clean Water Act

                                               i.     Stop pollution at the source

                                             ii.     Emission limitations for point sources

    1. RCRA

                                               i.     Storage and disposal of hazardous materials




Land as a Resource – Forests, Parks and Landscapes

 1. Natural areas are administered by a variety of governmental agencies and these areas provide valuable ecosystem services.

    1. Private-v-public land ownership statistics (p. 400)
    2. BLM (Bureau of Land Mgmt), NPS (National Parks Service), etc.
    3. Wilderness Act
    4. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
    5. National parks

                                               i.                                                                    i.      Let nature take its course

    1. Wildlife refuges


  1. In the United States and Europe, there are more forests growing today than at the turn of the century.

    1. Types of forest management
    2. Ecologically sustainable forest management practices
    3. Wildlife corridors
    4. methods of harvesting trees (clearcutting, selective cutting, strip cutting)


  1. Tropical Forests, both wet and dry, are disappearing rapidly from human activities.

    1. Tropical rain forest deforestation  

1.     poor sandy soils in forest don’t sustain life long after trees removed

                                             ii.     Subsistence agriculture (slash& burn)

                                            iii.     Logging

                                            iv.     Ranching

    1. Tropical Dry deforestation

                                               i.     Fuel wood consumption


  1. Rangelands in semi-arid areas must be carefully managed to prevent desertification.

    1. Fibrous root systems and grasses
    2. Carrying capacity & overgrazing
    3. Land degradation
    4. Taylor Grazing Act
    5. Ranchers-v-environmentalists


  1. Wetlands and coastlines are facing increasing pressure from humans.

    1. Wetland ownership
    2. People want to live on or near the water (2/3 in 90 miles)


  1. Urbanization and suburbanization are displacing family farms.


  1. Land-use decisions are complex because of variety of interest groups as effects overall.

    1. Development = sewers or Park = traffic
    2. Loss of tax revenue


  1. There are different opinions on how Federal lands should be managed.

    1. Wise use movement-v- environmental movement

       Solid Waste Management


  1. Solid wastes have become a problem because of the disposable economies of developed nations

    1. Minicipal-v-nonmunicipal solid wastes
    2. Composition of solid waste  


  1. There are only three ways to deal with solid waste disposal

    1. Sanitary landfills (open pit dumping)

i.      Trash as interstate commerce

  ii.      Problems

iii.      leachate,

iv.      NIMBY

v.      Closing a landfill

vi.      Plastics & tires


i.      Volume reduction

ii.      Energy generation

iii.      Mass burn-v-modular-v-refuse-derived incinerators

iv.      Problems/Solutions

v.      Emissions: Scrubbers & electrostatic precipitators

vi.      Bottom ash & fly ash disposal

    1. Recycling


  1. Waste prevention can be achieved by reducing, reusing, and recycling materials.

    1. Source reduction
    2. Pollution Prevention Act
    3. Dematerialization (must be as durable else no effect)
    4. Reuse of glass bottles has disappeared
    5. Recycling materials: paper, glass, aluminum, metals, plastics, and tires
    6. Fee per bag approach


  1. Hazardous wastes have adverse effects on human health so it must be disposed of properly.

    1. Hooker chemical company and Love Canal
    2. Carcinogens
    3. Dioxin
    4. PCB's
    5. Hanford Nuclear reservation


  1. Hazardous wastes are managed by legislation and careful practices

    1. RCRA  
    2. CERCLA (400,000 by 1990)
    3. Biological organisms to remediate sites

i.      Bioremediation

ii.      Phytoremediation

Hazardous waste reduction through:

i.      Source reduction

ii.      Less hazardous material substitution

iii.      Long term storage

    1. Plasma torches (10,000oC)
    2. Integrated waste management


Air Pollution


  1. There are a variety of types of air pollutants that are classified as primary or secondary.
  2. Sources of outdoor air pollutants are specific to human activities.

    1. Transportation
    2. Fuel Combustion
    3. Industrial processes
    4. Construction


  1. Air pollution causes adverse human health effects


  1. Urban environments concentrate air pollutants.

    1. Industrial smog -v- photochemical smog
    2. Temperature inversions (thermal inversions)
    3. Urban heat island & dust domes


  1. Effective management practices and technology are available to control air pollutants

    1. Electrostatic precipitators
    2. Fabric filters
    3. Scrubbers
    4. Dust control
    5. Switch from SOx
    6. Lower combustion temps
    7. Increase efficiency of furnaces
    8. Clean Air Act


  1. Air pollutants can travel long distances.

Grasshopper Effect or Global Distillation- when chemicals like mercury and PCB's are carried by wind to other places in the globe that don't use the stuff, like the native Inuits in Canada


  1. Indoor air pollution can be more dangerous than outdoor air pollution

    1. Sick building syndrome
    2. Radon
    3. Asbestos


  1. Electromagnetism and Noise pollution are other pollutants

    1. Decibel-levels and hearing loss
    2. EMF &  tumors? (data insufficient)



Atmosphere, Climate and Global Warming



  1. Global warming is a trend that can not be ignored

    1. The greenhouse effect

 i.      Greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC's, O3

    1. The aerosol effect
    2. 5 effects of global warming
    3. Shut off the ocean conveyor belt?
    4. International implications & environmental refugees (flooding coastlines)
    5. Ocean acidification


  1. There are strategies to combat global warming.

    1. Kyoto Protocol – caps C emission / emissions trading
    2. Sequester carbon in trees  or underground  (Bush Admin)
    3. Carbon management
    4. Fertilizing the oceans with iron  - increases photosynthesis in phytoplankton
    5. Adaptations by humans


  1. There is a seasonal (Southern Hemi Spring –October) hole in the stratospheric ozone layer that is enhanced by specific pollutants.

    1. Benefits of the ozone layer
    2. CFC's destroy the ozone layer
    3. Effects of ozone depletion
    4. Montreal Protocol – eliminates CFC’s
    5. Substitutes fro CFC's: HFC's & HCFC's
    6. Smuggling CFC's


  1. Acid deposition, both wet and dry, first occurred during the industrial revolution.

    1. The pH scale & [H+] ions
    2. SO2 and NOx emissions are exported
    3. Forests decline from acidic deposition
    4. Acid deposition alters soil chemistry (p. 507) and species in lakes (p. 505)

                                               i.     Adirondacks

    1. NOx emissions are increasing rapidly, despite controlling SOx
    2. Leaches metals out of rocks and soils


  1. Feedback loops

    1. Positive – enhanced effect  ex. More temp causes more AC causes more fossil fuels causes increased temp
    2. Negative – reduce the effect – increase temp causes increased evap causes increase cloud cover causes increased albedo decreases temp





Food Resources – Supply and Effects of Ag on Env’t



  1. Humans have dietary requirements to live.

    1. Undernourished-v- malnourished-v- over-nourished

                                               i.     Kwashiokor (lack of protein – neuro probs and learning disabilities)-v- marasmus (limited calories and protein) 

    1. Famines (natural and political)


  1. There is enough food on the globe to eliminate hunger, but people are still starving.

    1. World grain carryover stocks

i.      Food security

    1. Trend in shifting diets based upon level of development
    2. Distribution of food is the key economic barrier
    3. Different cultures have unique food perceptions


  1. The dominant type of agriculture is high-input agriculture.

    1. Subsistence agriculture (Shifting agriculture)


  1. Domestication has adversely affected genetic diversity of farm species.

    1. Crops not surviving under natural conditions
    2. Increasing crop yields
    3. The Green revolution  - post WWII – increased chemical fertilizer and high yield crops

                                               i.     Solutions and problems

    1. Livestock yields increase with the addition of antibiotics and hormones


  1. There are many adverse environmental impacts from agriculture.

    1. Agriculture is the primary source of non-point source pollutants.
    2. Mississippi River and dead zones in the Gulf of Mexico
    3. Degradation occurs because monoculture reduces soil fertility
    4. Irrigation is stressing the Ogallah aquifer and Colorado River
    5. High-input agriculture has fostered agribusinesses and pushed out family farms


  1. There are solutions to agricultural problems.

    1. The move to sustainable agriculture
    2. Organic farming
    3. IPM (integrated pest management)
    4. Genetic engineering & genetically modified crops

                                               i.     Backlash of GM strains (perceived risk & escape)

                                             ii.     No FDA labeling requirements


 Pesticides and Toxicology

  1.  Risk Assessment involves making uncertain decisions using scientific principals.

    1. Adverse health effects?
    2. Toxins
    3. Dose & response
    4. Perceived risks -v actual risks (nuclear power-v- smoking)
    5. LD50-v-ED50
    6. Dose response curves
    7. Risk Management
    8. Carcinogens
    9. Risks of chemical mixtures

                                               i.     Antagonistic-v-additive-v-synergistic

    1. Ecological risk assessment & stressors




  1. There are a variety of pesticides that are named by their target function.

    1. Fungicides-v-rodenticides-v-herbicides
    2. Narrow spectrum -v- broad spectrum pesticides
    3. Major groups of insecticides

                                               i.     Chlorinated hydrocarbons-v-organophosphates-v-carbamates

    1. Major types of herbicides

                                               i.      Selective-v-nonselective

                                             ii.     Broad-leaf-v-grasses


  1. Pesticides were used in the Vietnam War to defoliate the jungle.

    1. Agent Orange and dioxins of 2,4-D caused cancer


  1. Disease control and crop protection are major benefits of pesticide use.


  1. There are problems associated with pesticide use.

    1. Persistence, Bioaccumulation & biomagnification
    2. Targets developing genetic resistance

                                               i.     Resistance management (refuges)

    1. Ecosystem imbalances

                                               i.     New pests

                                             ii.     Beneficial wiped out

    1. Mobility in the environment

                                               i.     Water

                                             ii.     Drift


  1. Pesticide exposure can affect human health adversely.

    1. Dosage and length of exposure
    2. Endocrine disrupters
    3. Children


  1. The United States government advocated the use of pesticides following World War II to combat insect that adversely affected human health.

    1. DDT & mosquitoes
    2. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring


  1. There are ways to break the cycle of the pesticide treadmill.

    1. Alternative farming practices               f.  Cultivation methods
    2. Biological controls                              g.  Reproductive controls
    3. Pheromones & hormones                   h.  Genetic controls (Bt crops)
    4. Quarantine                                           i.  IPM
    5. Irradiating foods


  1. Laws have been passed to regulate pesticides

    1. FDCA, the Miller Amendment, & the Delaney Clause
    2. FIFRA





Addressing Environmental Problems- Part I


  1. To learn about the world, scientists use a universal method called the scientific method

    1. Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
    2. Variable (dependent [responding], independent [manipulated]) vs. control
    3. Observation  vs. inference
    4. Quantitative vs. qualitative



  1. Corporations and government employ cost-benefit analysis because monetary values can be put on pollutants or adverse health effects.

    1. Ford motor company and the Pinto
    2. Airlines



  1. People will abuse a public resource because they economically benefit from it.

    1. Harding's Tragedy of the Commons

                                               i.     Grazing lands

                                             ii.     George's Bank Fishery



Addressing Environmental Problems- Part II



  1. Americans perception of the environment has changed 180o since the Unites States was founded.

    1. Early Conservation Efforts

                                               i.     Frontier attitude

                                             ii.     Forests

1.     Audubon, Thoreau & Marsh

2.     Theodore Roosevelt

3.     Gifford Pinchot: NFS

                                            iii.     Parks & Monuments

1.     Yellowstone

2.     Yosemite & Muir

3.     Hetch Hetchy controversy

4.     Antiquities Act-NPS: "use without impairment"

    1. Conservation in the mid 20th century

                                               i.     FDR: CCC

                                             ii.     SCS post-Dust bowl

                                            iii.     Leopold: USFWS

                                            iv.     Rachel Carson's Silent Spring

    1. Environmental Movement since the mid 60's

                                               i.     Public will not tolerate environmental degradation by business & industry

                                             ii.     Earth Day

                                            iii.     EPA

                                            iv.     NEPA

1.     Council on Environmental quality

2.     EIS

                                              v.     Environmental Legislation (p. 46)


  1. Pollution control is influenced by economic decisions

    1. Externalities & Marginal costs
    2. MCPA -v- MCP
    3. The optimum pollution concept
    4. Flaws in the OPC

                                               i.     Intrinsic value of nature

                                             ii.     Ecosystem disruption


  1. Pollution is controlled using governmental action  as well as economic strategies

    1. Emission charges
    2. Fixed number of waste discharge permits (ERC's)
    3. Command and control approach


  1. Economic interests and governmental laws conflict at times

    1. Old growth forests of the Pacific Northwest and the Northern spotted owl


Adapted from:




© Laura Branch 2017